Russia’s Gray Zone Threat to Bulgaria

Lt. Col. Nikolay Y. Naydenov, Bulgaria

Bulgaria is a target of Russia’s gray zone aggression, wherein the Kremlin’s desired goal is to expand its sphere of influence. Russia pursues its goals by capitalizing on selected historical and cultural ties with Bulgaria, in concert with employing the economic instrument of power, waging disinformation, corrupting institutions, using proxies, and exploiting social tensions. Moscow undertakes those destabilizing efforts to enable penetration and domin...